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Essay: What are YIN and YANG?

What's YIN YANG?

What is yin yang? It comes from Taoism. Taoism is one of the great religion of the world. Yin Yang represents everything, for everything comes from it.

femininity & masculinity, cold & warm, matter & energy, science & religion,...

Yin is object while Yang is subject.

When they give and take together, movement is created.
Like warm air and cold air rotating together to make a hurricane.

The characteristic features of the relationship between subject and object are those of central and dependent, active and passive, dynamic and static, creative and conservative, initiating and responding, extrovert and introvert, and so forth. This does not mean that a particular principal element and a particular subordinate element must have all of these relationships at any one time; they may sometimes be in the relationship of central and dependent, sometimes in the relationship of active and passive, and so forth. Generally speaking, the relationship between the subject and the object is that between one exercising dominion over the other and one receiving dominion from the other.

12 Existence as Orbits from Michael Callahan on Vimeo.

Yang and Yin of Sungsang

In the two-stage structure sungsang exists as an inner base of an inner sungsang and an inner hyungsang, and also relates to a triple structure.[42] Mind has intellect, emotion and will, and the triple color charge of the strong nuclear interaction can be associated with the inner base of an atom.[43] The three aspects of the inner sungsang are the functional aspects and can be either active (yang) or at rest (yin) with respect to processing the information of the inner hyungsang. We are dealing with a unity of two and three in the sungsang which, interestingly enough shows some correspondence to the trigrams of the Book of Changes.

The number of protons in the nucleus of the atom is responsible for the properties of the atom, and consequently for its overall yang or yin designation in the hyungsang manifestation. This is related to the information in the inner hyungsang of the atom. Protons and neutrons are each formed from three quarks. Protons have two up quarks and one down; neutrons have one up quark and two down. If we associate the up quark, which also has a fractional positive charge, with a yang line in the trigram, and associate the down quark, which has a fractional negative charge, with a yin line, then protons and neutrons can be represented by the eight trigrams (Figure 3).

Figure 3. Relationship between Protons, Neutrons, and the Trigrams

With the physical manifestation of the hyungsang, and now our two-plus-three structure of the sungsang, we have shown how yang and yin can be connected to the physical interactions important for matter.

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The use of trigrams in relation to the inner hyungsang can be taken one step further, to living systems. In living systems, the informational content of the inner hyungsang is primarily stored in the DNA in the nucleus of the cell. Now we are moving from an essentially point-like, zero-dimensional storage of information in the atom to a one-dimensional storage of information in the linear code of DNA. In the genes it is the sequence of four bases (guanine, adenine, cytosine, and thymine) that code for the sequence of amino acids in proteins when that information is copied into RNA. Interestingly it is a codon of three bases in the RNA that codes for a particular amino acid in the primary structure of a protein. The code in DNA is therefore a triplet code of four possibilities giving sixty-four possible codons in RNA.

The connection of this genetic code to the trigrams arises when we consider how the trigrams are constructed from the coin or yarrow stalk methods of consulting the Book of Changes.[44] In both methods the trigrams and hexagrams are constructed from the bottom up one line at a time. The coins, or stalks, give four possible numbers -- 6, 7, 8, or 9 -- for each particular line in the diagram. The 7 and 9 are yang and the 6 and 8 are yin,[45]but the 6 and 9 give marked (or moving) lines that have special significance in interpretation. So now we have trigrams with three lines of four possibilities. This gives sixty-four possible trigrams, just like the sixty-four codons, and we could in principle associate each codon with one of these new trigrams.

By analogy, we can also make some predictions for the inner hyungsang of mind. Moving from atoms to cells was a move that saw an increase by one in the dimensionality of the stored information. We moved from essentially zero-dimensional points to a one-dimensional, linear DNA. The move also saw the triplet code increase from three lines of two possibilities to three lines of four possibilities, though all four possibilities are still just variations on yang and yin. Both of these changes allow for a massive increase in the potential meanings encoded. By extension, we might expect the informational storage of mind to extend to a two dimensional surface and involve a triplet code of eight possibilities giving 512 basic codes or trigrams.[46] Though there is no experimental evidence for such a triplet code of mind, it is known that surface area is important in brain function. This is why the cerebral cortex is folded as it is. The folding increases the ratio of the surface area to the volume. Also from Unification Thought we do know that the number three is associated with mind in the context of intellect, emotion, and will.

6. Conclusion

The ontology of classical Greek philosophy, such as found in Western philosophical theism and concepts such as mind-body dualism, is presupposed by the very language we use in describing religious concepts in the West. In explanations of the ontological concepts of Divine Principle it is easy to use that language in attempting to make the concepts understandable to a wider audience. I believe this happens throughout the Unification movement, such as in descriptions of the need to develop mind and body unity, and, as shown here, in the ontology of Unification Thought. However, presupposing an ontology based in Greek philosophy brings with it a history of interpretation that I believe somewhat distorts the meaning of the fundamental ontological categories found in Divine Principle. Furthermore, it creates a gap with scientific explanation.

In the West, science arose in large part from the Christian philosophical tradition that also considers the matter part of material existence. This was part and parcel of adopting the ontology of Plato and Aristotle. Though giving birth to science, these Christian doctrines on God and Creation have not changed to keep pace with the developments in science over the last two hundred years. In fact, modern science overturns the ontology of Plato and Aristotle. Consequently a gap developed between traditional Christian ontology and natural science that has yet to be filled, and which resulted in a perceived conflict between them.

Chinese traditional philosophy, on the other hand, such as found in the Book of Changes, does not directly look at matter itself. Rather it looks at the relationships that develop from the manifestation of existing beings. The “stuff” of existence is not really considered. Consequently there is no overlapping area of explanation with science. Thus, though there is no direct conflict with science, there is also no direct connection with it either. So there is also a gap between traditional Chinese thought and science.

Both Eastern and Western philosophical traditions seem incomplete. In order to show the unity between science and religion what is needed is a new ontology. I think that this is part of the purpose of Unification Thought. That is, it can fill the gap between traditional thought, both Eastern and Western, and science. Consequently in my writing I have been trying to strip away classical Western ontology from the meaning of the fundamental ontological categories and then look for the resulting implications. This process lead to the proposed model of sungsang as an inner base inseparable from hyungsang, a new view of spirit realm, and, in this paper, to an understanding of three different types of yang and yin characteristics in an existing being. The proposed two-stage structure can serve as a bridge between Unification Thought, the Book of Changes, and science.

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